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Technical Appendix

The London Intelligence – Issue 5

Technical Appendix

Population

The figures are from the ONS mid-year population estimates, for regions and local authorities. A number of data sources are used for the estimates: The General Register Office, The International Passenger Survey, The Higher Education Statistics Agency, and The National Health Service Central Register. The data accounts from long-term migration trends (people staying for more than 12 months) and estimates are made for different components of change. More information can be found here. 

National Insurance Number (NINo) Registrations

These statistics are a 100% extract of the volume of adult non-UK nationals registering within the UK for a National Insurance Number, which they need to work or claim benefits / tax credits. Figures are based on when the person registers on the HRMC Recording and PAYE system, which may be some time after they entered the UK. These statistics are not a direct measure of long-term inward migration, and have ‘national statistics’, not ‘official statistics’ status. 

Workforce jobs

Workforce jobs is a quarterly measure of jobs in the UK by the ONS, and is the preferred measure of short term employment change by industry. A variety of outputs are produced, including industry, region, gender and full or part time status. It is a compound source from a range of employer surveys, household surveys, and administrative sources; it has a sample size of 83,400 nationally. The estimates are seasonally adjusted. More information can be found here. 

Unemployment

These figures are from the quarterly regional labour market reports produced by the ONS, and are based on an ILO definition of unemployment. The figures come from a combination of surveys of households and businesses, including the Labour Force Survey. The numbers are seasonally adjusted. 

Commercial Property Vacancy

The commercial property figures are sourced from JLL’s Central London Office Market Report. Vacancy rates refer to the proportion of floor space that is unoccupied. Active demand relates to serious interest in commercial floor space, while take-up is the actual amount that is purchased or leased. More information can be found here. 

Purchasing Managers’ Index

The Regional PMI is compiled by IHS Markit for NatWest. It compiles responses from over 1,200 private sector manufacturing and services firm, which is representative of the economy’s structure, and acts as a health check of business activity. The number is the seasonally adjusted proportion of those reporting positive responses, plus half of those reporting no change. A score of 50 indicates no change in activity on the previous month. 

International Visits

Data is from the International Passenger Survey (IPS), which collects data face to face with passengers passing through ports into and out of the UK. This determines location of stay, length of stay, and spend during stay. The London sample is around 20,000 per annum. More information about the IPS can be found here. More information on recently changes to the survey methodology can be found here. 

Public Transport Ridership

All ridership figures are automatically collected by Transport for London for different modes within the network. Periods do not have the same number of days/weekdays, and are not adjusted accordingly. It excludes retrospective adjustments to bus journeys. 

House Prices and Transactions

The house price and transaction figures come from the LSL/Acadata England & Wales House Price Index. It uses actual transaction volumes and prices based on Land Registry data, and is updated monthly. The most recent monthly price accounts for c. 38% of transactions, two months previously c. 88%, and almost all for three months previously. The recent months are supplemented by forecast results. House prices are seasonally and mix adjusted at the London, but not borough level or with property type changes. 

Rental Price Index

This index is calculated using actual rental data collected for the Valuation Office Agency, and shows the change in the price of renting residential property from private landlords. More information can be found here. 

Rental Market Data

Rental market data is supplied by Dataloft, based on rent paid data supplied under contract from a leading tenant referencing company. The large and growing dataset of rent-paid transactions includes detailed information on both tenants and tenancies. It includes three years of historic data with a monthly addition of some 15,000–20,000 new records. The data has been rigorously collected by Rent4Sure. The dataset represents around 15% of all rental transactions, with up to 22% in some regions and extends across England and Wales. 

Line by line data allows for extensive analysis of tenant profile and market trends. The annual change in rents is based on achieved rents. Incomes analysis shows individual tenant incomes against the rent or, in the case of sharers, against their share of the rent. Zonal changes are based on London travelcard zones.    

Planning decisions

Planning decisions are based on figures produced by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, and published in table P135 here, sourced from General Development Control (District) PS1/PS2 returns.  

New build starts and completions

Figures are sourced from administrative data as reported to the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government. Starts and completion statistics for new build dwellings are taken from Table 253a from here. 

Issues Index

Ipsos MORI’s Issues Index is conducted monthly and provides an overview of the key issues concerning the country. Ipsos MORI interviewed a representative quota sample of 965 adults aged 18+ across Great Britain. The questions are spontaneous – i.e. respondents are not prompted with any answers. Ipsos MORI’s Capibus vehicle was used for this survey. Interviews were conducted face-to-face in-home towards the over three periods (6-24 April, 11-19 May, 1-12 June) at over 200 sampling points across Great Britain. Data are weighted to match the profile of the population. 

Attractions Monitor

The figures presented here are for the number of unique visits to 63 of London’s top attractions: museums, stadia, galleries, monuments and more. Data is collected by the individual attractions, before being sent to and compiled by London and Partners.  

Crime

These figures are for raw administrative crime data as supplied by Metropolitan Police Service and the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC). Total Notifiable Offences (TNOs) refer to all statutorily notifiable offences, as per Home Office Counting rules. More detail on violent crime definitions can be found here 

Rough sleeping

Rough sleeping data is from the Combined Homelessness and Information Network (CHAIN) – a multi-agency database recording information about rough sleepers and the wider street population in London. This included both people who have been seen rough sleeping by outreach workers and people who have a ‘street lifestyle’ such as street drinking or begging – often referred to as ‘wider street population’. Many people who have a street lifestyle are also rough sleepers, but a minority are not.  

Homelessness

Statutory homelessness and temporary accommodation data are from MHCLG table 784a – Local authorities’ action under homeless provisions of housing act (quarterly data). See here for more information.  

Healthcare

Referral and attendance figures are from administrative data submitted by NHS Trusts and Independent providers treating NHS patients for the Quarterly Activity Return. More information on these statistics can be found here 

The A&E figures refer to administrative data which measures the total number of attendances in the calendar month for all A&E types, including Minor Injury Units and Walk-in Centres, and of these, the number discharged, admitted or transferred within four hours of arrival. More information on this can be found here 

Delayed discharge figures are from the Monthly Situation Report, which collects data on the total delayed days during the month for all patients delayed throughout the month. More information can be found here, and here. 

Air pollution

The London Air Quality Network (LAQN) was developed by King’s College London in 1993. It comprises over 100 continuous monitoring sites in the majority of London’s boroughs. You can see more about the LAQN here.