Appendix 1: Defining the creative economy, the creative industries, and the cultural sector

Culture Club: Social mobility in the creative and cultural industries

Appendix 1: Defining the creative economy, the creative industries, and the cultural sector

The creative economy encompasses people with creative occupations working in the creative industries, as well as workers with creative occupations working in any other industry, and people in a non-creative job working in a creative industry. 49 In particular, the creative industries have been defined as originating from “individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property”. 50

creative economy, creative industries, dcms

The GLA has adopted the definitions of the creative industries and the creative economy from the Department of Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS).

The cultural sector is a more loosely defined term as there is currently no internationally agreed definition. DCMS have defined this sector as obtaining a “cultural product at the centre of the industry” 51 as best reflecting the availability of data on the standard industrial classifications (SIC). Table 3 below displays the industry classifications by sub-sector.

The creative and cultural industries encompass different sub-sectors and occupations, often aggregated under the term “cultural and creative industries” (CCI).

Other definitions define cultural industries as those whose major outputs have some symbolic value – such as fine arts, film and craft – but also possibly including jewellery, design and fashion. 52 To narrow the scope and focus on occupations that have marked underrepresentation in the workforce, this report focuses on the following sub-sectors, which also match the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Annual Population Survey categories:

  • Crafts and design: product, graphic and fashion.
  • Music, performing and visual arts.
  • Film, TV, radio and photography.
  • Museums, galleries and libraries.

However, we sometimes refer to data on the creative and/or cultural industries as a whole in the absence of more granular data.

  • 49 GLA Economics (July 2017). Working Paper 89 – London’s creative industries, 2017 update. Retrieved from: https:// industries_-_2017_update.pdf
  • 50 Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2001). Creative Industries Mapping Documents 2001. Retrieved from: https:// documents-2001
  • 51 Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2016). Sector economic estimates methodology. Retrieved from: https:// system/uploads/attachment_data/file/736270/DCMS_ Sectors_Economic_Estimates_-_Methodology.pdf
  • 52 Snowball, J. (2016, January 20). Why arts and culture contribute more to an economy than growth and jobs. The Conversation. Retrieved from: why-art-and-culture-contribute-more-to-an-economy-thangrowth- and-jobs-52224