London needs a more sophisticated approach to road user charging which reflects the true impact of individual vehicle journeys, according to a new report by Centre for London.
The report, Green Light: Next Generation Road User Charging for a Healthier, More Liveable, London, calls for London to move towards an innovative new road user charging scheme which charges drivers on a per-mile basis. Costs would vary by vehicle emissions, local levels of congestion and pollution and availability of public transport alternatives – and prices would be set before the journey begins.
The scheme would be integrated with London’s wider transport system via a new app and digital platform, which the report proposes would be run by Transport for London. The scheme, which the report calls City Move would provide Londoners with more choice about how they travel around the city.
City Move would utilise the latest technology to give Londoners all their travel information in one place, allowing them to compare, plan and pay for journeys. Drivers, for example, would be presented with costs and impacts of using their vehicle versus alternative modes of transport.
The report emphasises the need to update the existing system; while the new Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) is a much-needed environmental measure, it comes on top of the existing Congestion Charge, and proposed charges for the new Silvertown and Blackwall tunnels. This means that by 2025, London could have at least five separate road user charging schemes – each featuring different vehicle standards, hours of operation, charge amounts and payment arrangements. This has created a confusing system for drivers to navigate.
The report outlines a number of benefits of the City Move app and connected road user charging scheme:
- Fairer than the Congestion Charge and ULEZ – rather than charging drivers a flat daily rate regardless of how much they drive in a zone, the scheme would consider the impact of individual journeys in terms of journey length, road surface damage, economic costs and environmental damage.
- Tackle city-wide air pollution – charging drivers on the most congested roads the equivalent of a cup of coffee or a bus ticket could reduce total emissions and air pollution levels across the whole of London by up to a fifth (over and above the anticipated impact of the current ULEZ).
- Better experience on the roads – the scheme would reduce congestion and allow investment in roads maintenance, creating a better journey for all road users.
- Better for business – the scheme could reduce traffic overall, thereby reducing delays and helping business to make efficiency savings.
- A healthier, more liveable city – City Move would promote the use of public transport and active travel, making the streets more pleasant and inviting places for people, which would encourage Londoners to lead more active lifestyles.
The Mayor of London has powers required to implement such a scheme and the technology is now available. The report therefore calls on the Mayor to lead on the development of a smarter, fairer and healthier transport system – one with a new approach to road user charging at its heart.
It recommends that the Mayor of London should ask Transport for London to develop options for a new approach to road user charging, with a view to introducing the first version of a scheme by the end of the 2020-2024 Mayoral term. This would include developing a customer platform, upgrading the required GPS and mobile network capacity, and a trial to test the technology.
Silviya Barrett, Research Manager at Centre for London said:
“The Congestion Charge was pioneering when it was introduced 16 years ago, and the ULEZ is desperately needed to address a growing air quality crisis.
“But new technologies are rapidly transforming the way people travel – and how they pay for their journeys.
“It is time for London’s approach to road user charging to keep up with the pace of change.
“The Mayor should move towards embracing new technology and create a simpler and smarter approach to road user charging. This would be both fairer for drivers and better for the city overall.”
Anthony Alicastro, Chief Executive Officer of emovis, a global electronic tolling solution provider, which runs the Dart Charge scheme in London, said:
“City Move has the potential to make life simpler and fairer for people and businesses traveling around London.
“The technology exists – we are currently involved in Road User Charging pilots in the USA, and the concept of mobility credits makes this an innovative proposal that policy makers in London should be backing. City Move will make travelling through London smarter and fairer and maintain London’s position as a world leader in this field.”
Cllr Julian Bell, Chair of London Councils’ Transport and Environment Committee, said:
“London boroughs are keen to promote, cleaner, greener, more active forms of travel in order to clean up our city’s dirty air, improve people’s wellbeing and reduce congestion. Centre for London’s report makes a welcome contribution to the debate on road user charging, which can have a positive impact on a city but also needs to keep pace with the changing needs of our residents.
“That is why any scheme should use digital innovation and help Londoners make better-informed travel decisions.”
Steve Gooding, Director of the RAC Foundation, said:
“As this report rightly highlights, to have any chance of working smoothly and attracting public support rules and regulations need to be simple to understand and easy to plan for.
“One wonders whether this is the case in London – and increasingly in other towns and cities across the country – where drivers are confronted with an array of charges designed to do different things across different geographical areas. Many could be forgiven for confusing their CCs, CAZs and ULEZs.
“No one would challenge the urgent need to tackle congestion and reduce emissions so the easier things are made for drivers to comply the quicker change will be accepted.”
Will Judge, Vice President of Urban Mobility at Mastercard, said:
“By 2050, more than 70 per cent of the world’s population will live in urban areas, yet partly due to congestion, cities already account for this same percentage of global CO2 emissions. So the recommended creation of an integrated transport charging model is a sustainable and efficient way for London to tackle its challenge of moving millions of people around the city.
“Helping residents and visitors plan, book and buy their journeys through one digital platform, would reduce complexity but also aid peoples understanding of the environmental impact of their travel.”
Richard Dilks, Transport Director, London First, said:
“London paved the way for congestion charging 16 years ago and, as charging for road use becomes more common-place in big cities across the world, we need to plan to stay one step ahead.
“With the city now boasting various charges designed to tackle congestion and emissions, more than 6 in 10 (63 per cent) of Londoners support a simpler combination of these charges in future.
“In order to keep London an attractive place to visit, live and work we need to modernise and cohere our charges as part of a package of measures to effectively tackle congestion and air quality.”
Caroline Pidgeon MBE AM, Liberal Democrat Assembly Member, said:
“An intelligent use of our crowded roads must involve moving to a system of charging per mile for trips made in areas of high demand and poor air quality.
“We need a radical overhaul of the growing number of road user charges and instead move to a single comprehensive system that directly tackles congestion and air pollution wherever it occurs in the capital.”
Stephen Edwards, Director of Policy and Communications, Living Streets said:
“Centre for London’s report is a welcome and authoritative guide to the issues that will need to be considered in relation to road charging. Whilst positive progress has been made, more needs to be done urgently to address poor air quality, climate change, safety and traffic congestion throughout the Greater London area.
“Electric vehicles will reduce some, but not all, kinds of vehicle emissions. And they won’t solve the congestion problem. The potential of modern technology and the phasing out of oil-fuelled vehicles means that a more sophisticated version of road charging than the Congestion Charge should be worked upon to be an option for London’s future.”
Robert Molteno, Vice-Chairman, London Living Streets, said:
“This report details the principles on which any road user charging scheme for London should be based. Its proposal for a single, multi-modal London transport platform (smartphone app and website) will make it possible for Londoners to choose for the first time the best way they want to make each particular journey.
“All candidates standing to be Mayor of London next year need to have the courage to commit to develop a single, distance-based road user charging scheme. It is the only effective way of making a real difference to London’s transport challenges.”
Notes to Editors
- Centre for London is the capital’s dedicated think tank and a registered charity.
- This report has been sponsored byfunders Van and Eva DuBose, and Major Sponsors, Arup, emovis, Mastercard and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.
- Centre for London is editorially independent of its sponsors and the views in this report belong to the authors and the Centre alone.
- The five planned road user charging schemes mentioned in the report are: The Congestion Charge, the Ultra Low Emission Zone, the Low Emissions Zone, proposed charges for the new Blackwall and Silvertown tunnel, Dartford Crossing Charge.
- This report draws on interviews and workshops with urban mobility experts and stakeholders. Those included academics and experts in transport planning and management, design, user experience and smart technology, as well as campaigners and organisations representing different road user groups, including drivers, businesses, freight and logistics, taxi and private hire trade, shared mobility services, cyclists and pedestrians. We also carried out modelling and impact analysis, as well as a survey of international developments.